Last week I was discussing the Hawthorne Effect during a speech on performance. It led to a lively Q&A, so I thought I'd re-visit this post from December, 2009. The original experiment and its impact on management and human behavior are timeless.
In the 1920s, physiologist Elton Mayo conducted experiments at the Hawthorne Electrical Works in Chicago.
He was trying to confirm his theory that better lighting led to greater productivity. So, he had the lights on the factory floor turned up. Voila! As he expected, production levels increased, too. Done deal?
As an afterthought he decided to turn the lights down just to see what would happen. Production went up again. In fact, he found that whatever he did with the lighting, production increased.
Novel thought: Mayo discussed his findings with the workers who were involved. They told him that the interest Mayo and his researchers showed toward them made them feel more valued. They were accustomed to being ignored.
While the increased lighting no doubt made things brighter and healthier, it was the increase in morale that most impacted improvement in productivity. This became known as the Hawthorne Effect.
Most people schooled in management & organization development are well aware of the studies. However, I'm finding more and more business folks who haven't been exposed to them; I thought it might be a good idea to revisit what is the beginning of the "human relations" movement in management.
While scientists and pseudo-scientists have argued everything from methodology to the number of toilet breaks employees of that era received, the simple learning is this: When you pay attention to people, tell them what you are doing, and ask their opinion about things, the response--all else being equal--is a boost in morale and productivity. I dare say that Elton had stumbled upon Employee Engagement long before the term became popular.
I'm wondering: after 80+ years, why isn't this fundamental learning a part of every organization's modus operandi?
photo source: www.library.hbs.edu